## Sum of residuals ~ ε [Design Issues]

❝ I disagree. In the *model* ε = 0. However in the *fit*, the sum of residuals is only asymptotically 0. We shouldn’t speak of bias when we obtain something sufficiently close to the numeric resolution of the machine.

Hi Helmut!

I don't mean that we have bias because 0 not equal eps(). Numericaly we can make calculation with values lower that eps() like:

`(1E-40 + 2E-40) * 3E+40 = 9.0`

. Problems can start with things like this: 1 + 1E-40, for example: `(1E+40 - 1E+40 + 1 == 1E+40 + 1 - 1E+40) == false`

. - this not what about a try to say.I try to say, that zero residual (or effective zero residual) can't be at all, "by definition" in linear model.

### Complete thread:

- Should those subjects have only one period data be included in BE analysis? ssussu 2019-12-06 10:58 [Design Issues]
- No way! But... Beholder 2019-12-06 12:36
- No way! But... ElMaestro 2019-12-06 13:14
- No way! But... Helmut 2019-12-06 14:47
- No way! But... PharmCat 2019-12-06 23:46
- No way! But... wienui 2019-12-07 04:01
- EMA guideline: no way...: mittyri 2019-12-07 20:58
- EMA guideline: no way...: wienui 2019-12-09 05:25

- EMA guideline: no way...: mittyri 2019-12-07 20:58
- Slightly off topic, but related :-) ElMaestro 2019-12-08 01:31
- Slightly off topic, but related :-) Shuanghe 2019-12-09 12:00
- Slightly off topic, but related :-) PharmCat 2019-12-09 15:13
- Slightly off topic, but related :-) ElMaestro 2019-12-21 15:02
- Slightly off topic, but related :-) PharmCat 2019-12-22 01:12
- 2.220446e-16 ≈ 0 Helmut 2019-12-22 10:37
- The optional tolerance argument ElMaestro 2019-12-23 14:37
- 2.220446e-16 ≈ 0 PharmCat 2019-12-24 14:18
- Sum of residuals ~ ε Helmut 2019-12-24 14:54
- Sum of residuals ~ ε ElMaestro 2019-12-24 15:10
- Wrong terminology Helmut 2019-12-28 13:55

- Sum of residuals ~ εPharmCat 2019-12-24 18:40

- Sum of residuals ~ ε ElMaestro 2019-12-24 15:10

- Sum of residuals ~ ε Helmut 2019-12-24 14:54

- Slightly off topic, but related :-) ElMaestro 2019-12-21 15:02

- No way! But... wienui 2019-12-07 04:01

- No way! But... PharmCat 2019-12-06 23:46

- No way! But... Helmut 2019-12-06 14:47

- No way! But... ElMaestro 2019-12-06 13:14

- No way! But... Beholder 2019-12-06 12:36