## Which GMR to plug in [Two-Stage / GS Designs]

Hi BE-proff,

» I suppose you are talking about futility studies as a alternative for adaptive designs.

Errr.... what????

» Why are futility designs more popular if risks are similar?

Come again, what does this mean?
What is a futility design, futility study, how are they alternatives?

I meant to say that plugging in the observed GMR has a bunch of drawbacks, which often are plain showstoppers. The sample size explosion can be fixed by futility caps on sample size, and that of course keeps the sample size (and cost) down, but then power may be so low that the trial makes no sense and is nothing more than unethical exposure.

2-stage trials work well then you are absolutely sure about the match and only unsure about the variability.

This week's list of things I absolutely detest: Corona virus, the which function in R, WIA-WIA interfaces for scanning under Windows 10, the Bee Gees, the smell of my fridge.

Best regards,
ElMaestro

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