logical "and" in Google search [Tips / Tricks]

posted by Helmut Homepage – Vienna, Austria, 2018-05-28 16:48  – Posting: # 18822
Views: 1,750

Dear all,

when Google+ was introduced in 2011 the + operator (for logical "and") was removed from the search engine. It was standard since the early days of search-engines (hey, AltaVista). Did you every try to search for sites/documents which contain both the phrase “relative bioavailability” and the keyword “bioequivalence”? Good luck! With

"relative bioavailability" "bioequivalence"

I got 43,200 results. Sure because implicitly | (for logical "or") is used. But this is not what I want!
Discovered hidden goodies. The "and" operator is still there and works as desired. You have to use the URL-escaped version of +, which is %2B. This one

"relative bioavailability" %2B"bioequivalence"

gives only 243 results.
Now I want only results which contain “relative bioavailability” but not “bioequivalence”. In the old days one would have used the - operator (for logical "not"). Gone with the wind. However, the encoded version %2D should work (according to the documentation of Google’s API).

"relative bioavailability" %2D"bioequivalence"

Two results. Rrrreally?

Cheers,
Helmut Schütz
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